Fisher Library Heritage Study 2007 – Part 1 Report
27th September 2007
Clive Lucas, Stapleton and Partners Pty. Ltd.
155 Brougham Street
Kings Cross N.S.W. 2011
Telephone: (02) 9357 4811 Facsimile: (02) 9357 4603
© Clive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners Pty. Ltd., 2007
- The Burra Charter process
- Extracts from Draft Fisher Library Conservation Management Plan:
- Collected Evidence
- Statement of Significance
ARCHITECTS AND HERITAGE CONSULTANTS
155 Brougham Street, Kings Cross, Sydney, 2011, Australia Telephone: 61 (02) 9357 4811 Facsimile: 61 (02) 9357 4603 Email: email@example.com ACN 002 584 189
Fisher Library, University of Sydney Conservation Management Plan
AGENDA FOR WORKSHOP 27th September 2007
Welcome and apologies
Aims of Workshop:
- Comment on Statement of Significance
- Identification of Constraints and Opportunities
Introduction to heritage planning and the Conservation Management Plan
Initial comments on Draft Statement of Significance
Constraints and Opportunities on the care and use of the place arising from:
- cultural significance
- statutory heritage listing
- Sydney University Grounds Conservation Management Plan
- 2003 Campus Planning Strategy
- current users
Other constraints and opportunities including:
This Conservation Management Plan (CMP) has been prepared for The Campus Property and Services Office, University of Sydney. The brief for the report includes the following:
- establish a detailed understanding of the place
- assemble and supplement existing oral, written, and physical evidence
- analyse the collected information
- develop a statement of cultural significance
- analyse opportunities and constraints
- prepare conservation policies and strategies.
1.2 Definition of the Place and Features
The Fisher Library (University buildings F03 and F04) is situated on the corner of Eastern Avenue and University Place, opposite the Anderson Stuart Building and the top entrance to Manning Road, within the Camperdown Campus of the University of Sydney. The rear is accessed by Barff Road for delivery of goods.
Fisher Library was built by F C W Powell & Son to the design of the NSW Government Architects Office with Tom E O'Mahoney. The undergraduate wing was opened in 1962 and the nine-storey book stack was completed in 1967. The book stack was not completely ‘activated’ until 1971. The exterior of the building is intact while the interior has been changed to accommodate new technological services and changing library requirements.
The undergraduate wing is a reinforced concrete framed five-storey building, designed in an international modern style with cantilevered floor and roof slabs. The front (west) elevation appears to be only three-stories, with Levels 1 and 2 below Eastern Avenue ground floor level. The book stack is a multistorey copper/bronze clad building with stripped tall narrow window openings.
The Fisher Library currently contains the library collection, the majority of which is on open access for all readers, as well as offices, storage and meeting rooms for Fisher Library staff, the University of Sydney Archives, Macquarie Dictionary and the University Art Collection. At the time of the preparation of this report, contractors involved in the construction of the new Law Building adjacent occupied Level 1.
The form and methodology of this report follows the general guidelines for conservation management plans outlined in J S Kerr, The Conservation Plan, The National Trust of Australia (NSW), sixth edition, 2004, the guidelines to the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter), and the NSW Heritage Office and PlanningNSW’s publication Heritage Manual (November 1996, as amended July 2002).
For a flowchart of this methodology, see Appendix 1.
This report adheres to the use of terms as defined in the Australia ICOMOS Burra Charter (see Appendix 1).
1.5 Natural and Aboriginal Significance
This report addresses only the European cultural significance of the place. This report does not address indigenous heritage significance, which can take the form of archaeology of indigenous pre-history, post-contact history, and/or present-day associations or spiritual attachments.
1.6 Author Identification
Ian Stapleton, Meg Quinlisk, Kane Murdoch and Alison Henning of Clive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners prepared this report. Unless otherwise stated, photographs are by the authors.
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of the following:
- Mr Tim Robinson and Ms Julia Mant, Archivists, University of Sydney Archives
- Dr Julia Horne, University Historian
- Chris Legge-Wilkinson, Campus Property & Services, University of Sydney
- Mark Winstanley, Fisher Library.
1.8 Copyright of Images
The images and photographs (except those of the authors) used in this report have been reproduced for this report only. Copyright continues to reside with the copyright owners and permission must be sought for their use in any other document or publication.
Figure 1.1: Location plan (Source: UBD Directory)
Figure 1.2: Plan of the place showing the main features
2 Collected Evidence
In order to understand the place, information from both documentary and physical sources has been collected and analysed as follows.
2.1 Brief History of the Fisher Library
Origins of the Library at Maclaurin Hall
Fisher Library was founded in 1880 when local businessman Thomas Fisher bequeathed the majority of his estate, a sum of more than ₤30,000, to provide for the purchase of books, and the construction of a library. A portion of the bequest endowed a perpetual fund for books. As a result of the bequest, book stocks at the University improved markedly over the following 15 years, however little progress was made towards the erection of a library building.1 During this period the library collection was housed in a room on the first floor of the main Quadrangle, now the Senate Room.
In 1900, after several requests by the University for funding, the NSW Government agreed to fund the construction of a purpose built library building. NSW Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon designed the new building, in a style in keeping with the Academic Gothic style of the existing buildings. Construction took nine years to complete, and the building now known as Maclaurin Hall opened in September 1909.2
The Need for a New Library Building
In 1953 the office of the Vice-Chancellor highlighted the need for improved accommodations for the Fisher Library. With large increases in student numbers and rising demands on university buildings in the post-war years, the Vice-Chancellor noted that “facilities in the Fisher Library do not nearly meet the requirements of a university of this University’s present size. […] The Fisher Library is the most important service department in the University, and in the interests of the University’s scholarship and development a decision must be made at a very early date to expand the existing Fisher Library or replace it with a new and modern structure on another site within the University grounds.”3
In 1954 the University Policy and Planning Committee formed to consider the University’s building needs, and reported that a new building for the Fisher Library should be a very high priority4, and recommended that the Senate begin the initial planning for a new University library.5 In July 1955 the Senate resolved that the NSW Government Architect, in conjunction with a private architectural practice to be appointed by him, should begin preliminary design work on a new building.6 However, design work was delayed while the University sought outside advice on University’s library problems. Vice Chancellor SH Roberts approached the Principal Librarian of the Public Library of NSW, John Metcalfe, to spend six months at the University assessing the needs of the library. Metcalfe began his secondment in September 1956. In 1957 Metcalfe’s report recommended short-term changes to the existing library, such as internal rearrangements, and possible major extensions to the building. The question of whether to build a new library, or extend the existing building (into the area now occupied by the Mungo MacCallum Building), remained unresolved, as Metcalfe’s report made no commitment to a new building. In the course of the debate that followed, consideration of the library’s long-term needs gave rise to an altogether larger proposal for a library on a new site on the University campus.7
Decision on Sites for New Building Program
From 1956 the University Policy and Planning Committee considered the question of location for the University’s future buildings. Their primary concern was the long-term arrangement of buildings on campus, and what use was to be made of the space adjacent Victoria Park on Eastern Avenue. The Eastern Avenue site fulfilled key criteria for the placement of library, being centrally located in the University and conveniently placed for the faculties of Arts and Economics. Another benefit of the site was that it sloped away from the Main Quadrangle toward Victoria Park, allowing for a higher building, without overpowering the main buildings to the west.8 The Policy and Planning Committee recommended to the Senate that there was sufficient space for four blocks of buildings along Eastern Avenue. Site one, directly opposite the main Quadrangle, was not to be built upon, and site three was recommended as the position for a new science building. The library was to be built on site two, directly opposite the Old Medical School (The Anderson Stuart Building).
Figure 2.2: Maps of the University 1960, 1964, and 1965, showing the proposed footprint of the Fisher Library, the completed Undergraduate Wing, and, finally, the footprint of the book stack. (Source: University of Sydney Calendar)
In 1957 the University appointed the NSW Government Architect, then Cobden Parkes9, along with TE O’Mahony, as joint architects for the project. No official reason was given for the joint appointment, although O’Mahony later commented that the appointment was intended to avoid a repetition of the Chemistry Building, a building not greatly admired within the University.10
Beyond requirements for 2,000 readers and 1,000,000 volumes there were few specific details included in the design brief at that stage. O’Mahony undertook a tour of other libraries in the United States, and upon his return he entered discussions with the newly appointed University librarian, AD Osborn, in order to flesh out a detailed brief of the requirements for the new library. Osborn requested separate facilities for undergraduates and research readers, with the two wings sharing a common entrance.11 Other features of the design included a single set of entry doors for ease of supervision, identical layout on the floors of the undergraduate wing for simplicity of use, and wide staircases which negated the need for multiple lifts.12
In 1958 Ken Woolley, design architect with the Government Architect’s office, drew up plans for a building which included a central stack emerging from the roof of a low podium. As a response to these plans, O’Mahony drew up plans for a low, square plan undergraduate building alongside a high offset book stack. Both proposals were shown to Assistant Principal WH Maze, who felt that O’Mahony’s proposal would best meet the requirements of the library. The Government Architect subsequently developed this design concept.13 Woolley designed internal items such as stair balustrades and rare book cabinets, as well as the reading room furniture.14 During construction the Government Architect’s office was primarily responsible for overseeing the project, while O’Mahony had little involvement aside from occasional site meetings.15
The NSW Government Architect EH Farmer and TE O’Mahony were jointly awarded both the Sulman Prize and the RIBA Gold Medal for their work on the undergraduate wing of the Fisher Library. In later years several publications referred to Ken Woolley as the architect for the building16, leading O’Mahony to go on record to clarify that his part was central to the design of the building:
“ [I] produced the overall central ideas, comprising siting, shape, internal arrangements, massing, and elevational treatment…Ken Woolley exercised a considerable influence in developing the plans, as I have noted; he added the ‘link’, re-located the stairs, proposed the bronze cladding, and the window treatment of the undergraduate wing lower ground floor; and during construction completed and altered some of the interior detailing, and designed the furniture…But he was not originator of the main concept and in fact opposed it when it was first proposed by me.”17
Figure 2.4: Ground floor plan showing the relationship of the Undergraduate Wing, the Book Stack, and the link between them. (Source: Architecture in Australia, December 1963, p. 75)
Plans to construct the Fisher Library were undertaken in the context of other developments. In 1957 the federal government commissioned a report into higher education in Australia. Known as the ‘Murray Report’ in honour of the commission’s chairman, the report lamented the conditions within Australian University libraries. The federal government acted upon the findings of the report, and in doing so began to assume control over universities from the States. Along with this change came the financial responsibility for Universities, including building works such as the Fisher Library.18
The new Fisher library was planned for construction in two stages. Stage 1 of the library (the undergraduate wing) would temporarily accommodate 1200 undergraduate students, 60,000 volumes on open access for undergraduate study, and all of the library’s staff, as well as the library’s collection, to be relocated upon completion of the book stack. Once construction work was completed on the two buildings, Stage 1of the library would accommodate 1700 undergraduate students and 100,000 volumes for undergraduate study. Stage 2 (book stack and research wing) was designed to hold 1,600,000 volumes and up to 600 senior readers.
Features of the plan included:19
- Separate facilities for undergraduate and research students, joined by an entrance vestibule joining the two sections.
- Entrance through a single set of doors, to enable supervision.
- Identical layout on floors of the undergraduate wing to provide for simple and convenient use of resources.
- Access via wide staircases, negating the need for lifts throughout the building.
- Entrance to undergraduate reading areas via an ‘open-access’ book collection, keeping disturbance to the centre of the building.
- Individual desks to seat undergraduate students, as well as a number of informal reading areas with easy chairs.
- Acoustically treated ceilings with recessed fluorescent lighting.
- The undergraduate building to have a flat roof to provide an open-air reading area, partly shaded by roofs at the perimeter.
- Five group study rooms and one typing room, all to come off the central corridor.
- A basement that could accommodate mechanical equipment, a shipping room, staff rooms, a photocopying room, and a book stack area prior to construction of stage 2 of the library.
- Stage 2 (book stack) to have eight floors with identical layout, planned in the most simple and economical manner, with desks lining the north and south sides, and a central core of services, such as lifts, toilets, janitorial facilities.
Having asked the federal government for £1,000,000 for the first phase of construction, the University received only £500,000.20 A joint meeting of the Building and Grounds and Library Committees considered whether to build the book stack and part of the undergraduate wing first, or to build the entire undergraduate wing in the hopes that further funding would be forthcoming for the book stack. The Committees agreed to the latter idea.21 O’Mahony proposed that the lift shaft for the book stack should be built simultaneous with the undergraduate wing.22Osborn argued for the inclusion of air conditioning in the building.23
Further funding for capital works at the University was approved in the State Grants (Universities) Act 1960, ensuring that sufficient funds were available for the completion of stage 1 of the new library. Construction of this stage took more than two years, and in 1962 the five-storey undergraduate wing was completed, along with the linking entrance vestibule and the lift shaft for the book stack.
Numerous features of the completed building set a new standard for libraries in Australia. The accommodation provided for in the library was the best of any university library in the country. 100,000 books were available on open access shelves, with seating for up to 2,000 students at individual desks, as well as private meeting rooms.24The undergraduate wing accommodated the entire collection of the library, about 500,000 volumes when opened. These were stored in the lower levels of the undergraduate wing until the book stack was opened.25 The airconditioning system installed at the library was, at the time, the largest of its kind in Australia, while equal concern was paid to issues such as noise dampening and lighting. In some respects frugality was required, such as the substitution of Piles Creek sandstone for quartzite around the window frames,26 however in most respects the building fulfilled the University’s hopes that the library would be the best in the nation, and the equal of many other University libraries overseas.
In 1961, with construction of the undergraduate wing under way, the Government Architect’s office and O’Mahony submitted detailed designs for the book stack, along with estimates for the construction of the next stage.27 The Buildings and Grounds Committee approved the drawings, but requested some small changes, such as a canopy outside the main entrance, a vending machine room on the ground floor, and an observation area on the 9th floor.28 The sum of $1,116,000 was allocated for the construction of half the book stack, predominantly from government grants.29
Despite progress on the building, funding shortages caused problems on the project and economies had to be made. Key amongst these was the sacrifice of the proposed bronze cladding, with bronze angles over the windows chosen as an alternative, saving approximately $160,000.30 However, in 1967 there were instances during heavy rain of water seeping into the walls of the book stack and forming pools on the floor.31 Following investigation into the problem, and consideration of alternatives such as a PVC coating for the building32, the Buildings and Grounds Committee recommended that metal cladding be installed as originally planned, with the Government Architect and TE O’Mahony to oversee the project. This was funded in the 1970-72 triennium and completed in 1971.33
Figure 2.11: Roof terrace of the undergraduate wing, showing clock tower in background, c. 1960s. (Source: University of Sydney Archives, G3/224/0122)
Figure 2.10: Entry vestibule to the Fisher Library, c. 1965-70. (Source: University of Sydney Archives, G3/224/0097)
Figure 2. 12: Undergraduate library viewed from Victoria Park, 1963. (Source: State Library of NSW, GPO 2 – 18793)
Figure 2. 13: The ‘Friends Room’, named as a tribute Victoria Park, 1963. to the Friends of the Library, 1963. (Source: State Library of NSW, GPO 2 – 18793) (Source: State Library of NSW, GPO 2 – 18794)
Figure 2.14: The card catalogue in use in the undergraduate wing. (Source: University of Sydney Archives, G3/224/0175)
Figure 2.15: Study carrels were located close to open access bookshelves in the undergraduate reading room.
(Source: State Library of NSW, GPO 2 – 18778)
|Figure 2.16: Windows in the undergraduate reading room took advantage of the outlook to Victoria Park. (Source: State Library of NSW, GPO 2 – 18779)||Figure 2.17: The librarian's office, furnished in blackwood. (Source: Architecture in Australia, December 1963, p. 73. Photograph by Max Dupain.)|
Contemporary Appreciation of the Design
As joint architects, Government Architect EH Farmer, and TE O’Mahony shared the 1962 Sulman Prize and the RIBA Bronze Medal for Stage 1 (the undergraduate wing) of the Fisher Library, a name the University Senate had earlier agreed to retain for the new building.34Of the design the RIBA jury stated:
“The design of the building is distinguished, and at the same time has solved with rare sensibility a most difficult siting problem. It is a modern building of uncompromising integrity, which by a combination of materials, good proportions and fine scale has harmonised with and complemented nearby beautiful sandstone university buildings.”35
The new Fisher Library departed from the traditional concept of the library building: “the older libraries of the word, where lofty-marble-lined interiors are the rule, the interiors of the Fisher Library present a different conception. Only in the entrance lobby, which also houses the card catalogue and reference department, are the standard nine feet ceilings departed from. Here a large portion of the lobby space rises through to the next floor, where glimpses are seen of the more casual uses of the library, browsing areas and music listening areas. A further portion then penetrates the next floor to the main roof itself providing top lighting through fibreglass domes, which gives a lofty and luminous effect.”36 Areas such as the prestigious rare book department, showcasing some of the University’s most prized possessions, were also noted features of the library.37
EH Farmer, in accepting the Sulman award, noted the “politeness” required of the library, so as not to overshadow the main buildings nearby.38 In addition to its external appeal, the Library is notable as “probably the first major university library in the world planned simultaneously, yet separately, for both undergraduates and for senior scholars.”39 In this regard the two buildings clearly express their functions through their architecture. In his acceptance speech TE O’Mahony said of the building that the design “best suited the functional requirements of the library and expressed a contemporary architectural philosophy […] we are of course delighted that the appearance that has resulted has been so well received for its own sake as well as in relationship to the older buildings.”40
Subsequent Use of the Library to the Present
Completion of the Fisher Library was followed closely by developments within the organisation of the library. Electronic systematising of the library’s holdings began in 1964 with the introduction of a circulation system using a punch card system.41 Computer cataloguing began in 1971, and was completed in 1987.
Since the completion of the Fisher Library, the library’s collection has grown to fill the buildings, and now requires off-site storage for lesser-used items. At present the library has holdings around 5 million volumes, including special collections such as the Rare Book and East Asian Collections, as well as the undergraduate and research collections.
In 1969 the University archives moved in to level nine of the book stack. The Archives and Records Management Service houses the records of the University, including the records of the Senate, Academic Board, and other administrative offices within the University.
2.2 Physical Evidence
If some of these sections are too big or unwieldy, relegate to an appendix, using a cross-reference under the heading.
Description of the Place Generally
Fisher Library is located on the corner of Eastern Avenue and University Place, adjacent to the main entry drive, University Drive, of the Camperdown campus of the University of Sydney (see Figure 1.1). Victoria Park is located directly to the east. The building is located among some of the oldest and most significant buildings of architectural note and heritage value at the University, including the Main Quadrangle to the north west and the Anderson Stuart Building opposite Eastern Avenue from the library. A new Law building is currently under construction to the south, and a small coffee cart is positioned in the main entrance forecourt, with associated cafe seating and furniture. The forecourt is visually connected to the adjacent University lawn, Manning Road and the Anderson Stuart Building by painted white pedestrian crossings.
The surrounding buildings are predominantly three storeys and the land between these and the subject building is highly developed with road and path surfaces, garden edging and landscaping.
The Main Quadrangle and Anderson Stuart Building were both constructed in the mid-late 19th century. Most of the buildings along Eastern Avenue are modern architectural elements, in contrast to these historic university buildings.
The Fisher Library is composed of two wings, the Undergraduate Wing and the Bookstack, which are joined by a linking element which contains the main entrance and circulation desk for both wings.
The Undergraduate Wing is a reinforced concrete framed five-storey building, designed in an international modern style with cantilevered floor and roof slabs. The front (west) elevation appears to be only three-stories, with Levels 1 and 2 below Eastern Avenue ground floor level. The Bookstack was completed 5 years after the undergraduate wing in 1967, and completely activated in 1971. This is a multistorey copper/bronze clad building with stripped tall narrow window openings. The roof is topped by a large air conditioning plant, which was the largest of its type in Australia at the time of its construction. The exterior is entirely covered with a copper/bronze cladding and is vertically stripped with tall narrow window openings.
The Fisher Library is orientated to the west and is accessed via a large pebblecrete forecourt and precast concrete steps. The main entrance to the building is located in the recess on the front (west) elevation, with a curtain of automatic glass doors on the Eastern Avenue ground floor (Level 3) and vertical copper/bronze clad louvres above. The book stack and undergraduate wing are connected internally on Levels 1 to 5.
A covered terrace created by the cantilevered floor and roof slabs surrounds the remainder of the front (west) elevation of undergraduate wing. The ground floor walls are set behind a copper/bronze clad frame and covered with ashlar stonework, and seating is cantilevered in alternate bays. The ground floor of the north and eastern elevations (Level 1) are clad with rock-faced stonework with a series of glazed windows and doors and surrounded by a cement footpath. The upper floors of each elevation are largely glazed with a stonework base, apart from the open roof terrace on the fifth floor.
Panoramic views from the rooftops of each of the building components (Level 5 of the Undergraduate Wing and Level 10 of the Bookstack) extend over Victoria Park to the city of Sydney and the inner western suburbs.
See Section 2.3 for recent images of the place.
Landscape and Vegetation
The building is surrounded by institutional landscaping, consisting of pebblecrete paving with brick edging, built up brick garden beds, precast concrete steps and concrete footpaths, all typical of a university campus environment. A university bus parking bay is located in front of the undergraduate wing and a medium Moreton Bay Fig tree and garden beds partly shield the front entrance and front (west) elevation of the book stack. To the north is a manicured lawn with dense garden beds and precast granolithic paving and steps. Barff Road runs parallel to the eastern (rear) elevation of the building, providing access to the loading dock and a small carparking area at the rear.
Figure 2.19: Survey of site features For key to numbers, see Key to Survey of Site Features.
Key to Survey of Site Features42
Analysis of Views and Streetscapes
A survey of views and visual catchments has been carried out and is summarised in Figure 2.20.
Key to Survey of Views Visual Catchments
C1 Small visual catchment between north side of subject building and Port Jackson figs adjacent University Avenue
C2 Enclosure formed by subject building, the Quadrangle building, Anderson Stuart Building (and adjacent fig trees) and trees around east and north end of forecourt to the Quadrangle Building.
Figure 2.20: Survey of views and streetscape analysis For key to numbers, see Key to Survey of Views and Streetscape Analysis.
3University of Sydney Archives (UOSA), G1/5/4, Memorandum from Acting Vice-Chancellor to committee, 26 August 1953.
4UOSA, G1/1/31, Minutes of the University Senate, Report of the Policy and Planning Committee, 16 August 1954.
6UOSA, G1/1/31, Minutes of the University Senate, 4 July 1955.
7Radford, N, ‘Accommodating the University Library’, Record: The University Archives, 2006, pp. 16-17.
8 UOSA, G1/1/33, Minutes of the University Senate, Report of the Library Committee, 2 October 1957.
9Upon the retirement of Cobden Parkes in 1958, EH Farmer was appointed NSW Government Architect.
10Johnson, P-A, Lorne-Johnson, S (Eds.), interview with Thomas Edmund O’Mahony in Architects of the middle third: interviews with New South Wales architects who commenced practice in the 1930s and 1940s, School of Architecture, University of New South Wales, 1992, p 114-115.
12UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 28 November 1958.
13Architects of the Middle Third, op. cit., p 115-116.
15O’Mahony, T, MLMSS 3871 Add on 2103, Fisher Library University of Sydney: a history of the planning and design of the new library building from 1957, to its substantial exterior completion, 1991.
16Saunders, D and Burke, C, Ancher, Mortlock, Murray, Woolley-Sydney Architects 1946-1976, Sydney, Power Institute of Fine Arts, University of Sydney, 1976, pp. 38-40; Howells, T, The University of Sydney Architecture, Sydney, Watermark Press, 2007, p 77; Taylor, J, Australian Architecture Since 1960 (2nd Ed.), Red Hill, ACT, Royal Australian Institute of Architects-National Education Division, 1990, p 23-4.
17 O’Mahony, Fisher Library University of Sydney: a history of the planning and design of the new library building from 1957, to its substantial exterior completion, op. cit.
18 Kilpatrick, J, ‘Grow with Praise of Future Ages: Creating the Bailleu Library Building 1959’, Australian Academic and Research Libraries, Vol. 32 No.2, June 2001.
19UOSA, G1/5/5, University of Sydney New Library report, 28 November 1958, pp. 2-4.
20Radford, N, ‘Accommodating the University Library’, Record: The University Archives, 2006, p 17.
21UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 13 February 1959.
22 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 23 April 1959.
23 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 22 January 1960.
24 ‘The New Fisher Library’, Building: Lighting: Engineering, March 1963, p 53-7.
25 Ibid, p 55.
26 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 1 October 1959.
27 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 13 December 1963.
28 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 18 February 1964.
29 UOSA, G1/5/5, report on Fisher Library Book stack by Asst. Principal Maze, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 28 January 1969.
31UOSA, G1/5/6, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 22 August 1967.
33 UOSA, G1/5/6, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 21 September 1967.
34 UOSA, G1/5/5, Minutes of the Building and Grounds Committee, 2 March 1959.
35 University of Sydney Gazette, November 1963, p 86.
36 Fisher Library, Architecture in Australia awards issue, December 1963, p 74.
37 Ibid, p 73-4.
38 Ibid, p 74.
39 Ibid, p 71.
40 Ibid, p 75.
41 Kent, A and Lancour, H, Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science, CRC Press, 1980, p 330.
42Key to Time Periods O = Original
? = Date unclear
EA = Early Addition
LT = Late 20th Century (1981-2000)
M = Modern (2001-present)