1. Clinical queries


Questions should be both framed and analysed using the P I C O formula.
PPatient population /clinical problem Who is the question about? What is the clinical problem?
IIntervention (study factor) /exposureWhat is being done to the patient?
Is an exposure the cause of a problem?
CComparator (intervention or study factor)What is being compared?
OOutcomeWhat outcomes are you interested in?


Question (examples)Question TypePatient
(population/disease)
Intervention(Exposure)/ComparisonOutcome
How accurate is mammographic screening in the diagnosis of breast cancer in obese women?DiagnosisIn obese womenis mammography an accurate tool for diagnosing breast cancer?
How effective is mass screening in reducing mortality / increasing survival from breast cancer?TherapyIn women with previously undiagnosed breast cancer does mass screening compared with no mass screeninghave a positive effect on survival rates.
Does the survival of women with breast cancer differ when a total mastectomy is performed as opposed to a lumpectomy.TherapyIn patients with breast cancerdoes total mastectomy versus lumpectomyhave a more postive effect on survival rates
Is there any evidence that smoking increases the risk of breast cancer in women? AetiologyIs there evidence that womenwho smoke versus non-smokersare more likely to develop breast cancer
What is the prognosis for obese women diagnosed with breast cancer?PrognosisIn patients diagnosed with breast cancer do obese women compared those of a normal weight have a better or worse prognosis in terms of survival.



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